The Piano Sonata

The Piano Sonata No. 30 Op. 109 in E main from 1820 is the third to final of Ludwig van Beethoven’s piano sonatas. After the highly effective Hammerklavier Sonata op. 106, lengthy deaf, he returned with it to smaller dimensions and a extra intimate character. The sonata is devoted to Maximiliane Brentano, the daughter of Beethoven’s longtime good friend Antonie Brentano. In 1812, Beethoven had already composed the little piano trio in B flat main, WoO 39, for her.
Musically, the three-movement work is characterised by a free use of the normal sonata type. His focus is on the third motion, a posh set of variations as in op. 111.

Origin story

The compositional beginnings of op. 109 will be traced again to the primary months of 1820. They preceded Beethoven’s negotiations with Adolf Schlesinger, the publisher of his final three sonatas. Latest analysis means that Friedrich Starke requested Beethoven to put in writing a contribution for his piano anthology Wiener Pianoforteschule. Beethoven interrupted work on the Missa solemnis. In the end, nevertheless, he provided Starke the Bagatelles op. 119, nos. 7–11.


In the midst of music historical past, there was a lot hypothesis and philosophizing concerning the character of the person keys. It has typically been doubted whether or not the keys have any which means in any respect.
Nevertheless, particularly within the final three piano sonatas, which in a sure manner will be thought of a pianistic abstract of Beethoven’s world of concepts, the selection of keys is actually no coincidence, however well-considered.
This turns into clear when one recollects the position performed by keys in Beethoven’s solely opera, Fidelio. C minor and C main stand for evil and good, for tyranny and freedom, for darkness and light-weight, even for hell and heaven. As within the opera and even within the fifth symphony, Beethoven chooses these two keys in his final sonata, op. to defeat the evil on the earth and to create a world the place “all males turn into brothers”. The dedication of this sonata to Archduke Rudolph could even comprise a direct enchantment to a political authority to assist a liberation motion.
Within the opera, A flat main is the important thing of Florestan languishing within the dungeon, with whom Beethoven presumably identifies within the A flat main Sonata op. 110. That is virtually compellingly prompt by the easy indisputable fact that this sonata is the one one that doesn’t bear a dedication, i.e. that it stays fully in Beethoven’s possession and offers along with his very personal internal being.
Lastly, within the opera, E main is the important thing of Leonore, who escalates in heroic pathos of loving self-sacrifice within the E main a part of her nice aria. The concept of ​​salvation by the “eternally female” (Goethe) is actually additionally mirrored in Beethoven’s mysterious “immortal lover”. In opposition to this background, it could hardly be a coincidence that the Sonata op. 109, which is devoted to “Miss Maximiliana Brentano”, is in the important thing of E main.

United States

United States, United States of America, USA, till July 11, 1778, america of America, colloquially additionally America – a federal state in North America consisting of fifty states, bordering Canada to the north, Mexico to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Arctic Ocean to the northwest and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.
The third largest nation when it comes to inhabitants (after China and India), and fourth in terms of area (after Russia, Canada and China.). It additionally consists of non-state islands within the Pacific (Baker, Guam, Howland, Jarvis, Johnston, Kingman, Northern Mariana Islands, Halfway, Palmyra, American Samoa, Wake) and the Atlantic (Puerto Rico – the most important of them, formally related to america – Virgin Islands, Navassa). The nation’s de facto territory can also be the Guantánamo navy base (in Cuba).
Linguistically and culturally various, militant peoples of Native People, together with the comparatively much less break up Inuit, inhabited the areas of at the moment’s United States for about 10,000. years. Earlier than the arrival of Europeans and, consequently, their forcible importation of captured and enslaved Africans in West Africa to work on plantations, the indigenous inhabitants amounted to over 1 million inhabitants. On account of the conflict with the immigration of Europeans with higher weapons at their disposal, the indigenous inhabitants was subjected to persistent, culturally devastating hostilities. In consequence, it has been lowered to a negligible fraction of a brand new complete. African-Americans, initially slaves, have been freed on account of the bloody Civil Conflict within the 1860s and received by the opponents of slavery. The method of integrating them, in addition to the Indians, continues to be ongoing.

Historical past

At present, america is a culturally, ethnically, religiously and morally various nation. Alternatively, they’re additionally deeply polarized locations, a state that’s politically, ethnically, economically and morally divided. It’s an growing nation with a inhabitants of over 323 million individuals, marked by a big improve in immigration (authorized and unlawful), particularly from neighboring Mexico. A number of the surviving Indian communities nonetheless preserve their cultural and nationwide identification (Lakota, Hopi). Many Indians are serving or serving in america’ armed forces (for example, the Navahs of World Conflict II as Indian ciphers). In lots of remoted ethnic settings, immigrants and native residents largely establish with the ethnicity of their ancestors, however this isn’t the nationwide social norm.

Financial improvement

The liberal guidelines governing the American economic system resulted in its speedy improvement. Common suffrage for whites and quite a few political freedoms contributed to the elevated inflow of settlers from Europe. They established dynamically growing enterprises, sustaining the ethos of labor, persistence and financial savings. The US’ share of world manufacturing elevated from 7% in 1840 to 23.3% in 1870. New gear, reminiscent of mix harvesters, was broadly launched. Nevertheless, the division into two financial zones grew to become an increasing number of seen – the economic and urbanized North and the agricultural South, the place the work of slaves kidnapped in West Africa was massively utilized in plantations.

Nepal Història

Història antiga

El Nepal té una llarga història que s’ha estès durant mil·lennis. Els kirati són un dels primers grups nepalesos coneguts, aproximadament el 563 a. C. i l’emperador Aśoka va governar sobre un vast imperi que incloïa el nord de l’Índia i el sud de la regió de Terai de l’actual Nepal al s. i a. C. Per a l’any 200, l’imperi budista va ser desplaçat per feus hindús resurgents, tais com la Dinastia Licchavi.

Al voltant de l’any 900, la dinastia Thakuri va succeir a l’era Licchavi i va ser finalment succeïda per la Dinastia Malla, que va governar fins al segle xviii. El 1768, el rei de Gorkha Prithvi Narayan Shah, va capturar la ciutat de Katmandú, convertint-la a la capital del seu nou regne.2 En 1814 Nepal es va veure involucrat en una guerra amb el Regne Unit (representat per la Companyia Britànica de les Índies) Orientals) en un conflicte conegut com a guerra anglo-nepalesa, que va acabar amb el tractat de Sugauli (1816), en la qual el Nepal va cedir el Sikkim i el sud de Terai, a canvi de la retirada britànica. Després que els gurkhas nepalesos ajudessin els anglesos a aixafar el motí dels Cipayos el 1857, la major part dels territoris de Terai els van ser tornats en senyal de gratitud.

Democràcia i guerra civil

La reina Rani del Nepal envoltada de les seves dames de companyia, a la dècada de 1920.
La Dinastia Shah va ser suspesa el 1846, quan Jung Bahadur Rana va prendre el control del país després d’assassinar diversos centenars de prínceps i caps a la massacre del Kot (palau d’arsenal) de Katmandú. Els Rana (gairebé tots Maharajás de Lambjang i Kaski)9 van governar com a primers ministres hereditaris fins a 1948, quan la colònia britànica va aconseguir la seva independència. L’Índia va proposar al rei Tribhuvan com a nou governant del Nepal el 1951 i va patrocinar el Partit del Congrés Nepalès. El fill de Tribhuvan, el rei Mahendra, va dissoldre l’experiment democràtic i va declarar un «sistema panchayat» (dictadura sense partits polítics) amb què governaria el regne. El seu fill, el rei Birendra el va succeir al tron ​​el 1972 i va continuar amb la política panchayat fins que la Jana Andolan (Moviment Popular o Moviment Democràtic) del 1989 va forçar la monarquia a acceptar les reformes constitucionals.

Al maig de 1991, Nepal va tenir les seves primeres eleccions en gairebé 50 anys. El Partit del Congrés Nepalès i el Partit Comunista del Nepal (Marxista-Leninista Unificat) van rebre la major quantitat de vots. Tot i això, cap dels dos partits va poder mantenir el poder per més de dos anys consecutius. Els crítics argumenten que les reformes governamentals no milloraven l’ordre polític de manera apreciable, ja que el nou govern també estava caracteritzat per l’extrema corrupció vorejant la cleptocràcia. El febrer de 1996, el Partit Comunista del Nepal va iniciar una insurrecció armada per reemplaçar el règim per un estat comunista de tendència maoista. Aquest conflicte es prolongaria durant 10 anys, al llarg dels quals moririen més de 12.700 persones. Segons l’Informal Sector Service Centre, les forces governamentals són responsables del 85 % dels morts de civils.

Segons el relat d’alguns funcionaris governamentals del Nepal, l’1 de juny de 2001, el príncep hereu Dipendra, en tornar al seu palau després d’una sortida nocturna, va assassinar els seus pares, el rei Birendra i la reina Aishwarya, així com altres diversos membres de la família reial, producte d’una querella familiar. Tot i intentar suïcidar-se, Dipendra es va mantenir amb vida, i encara que va caure en estat de coma, va ser proclamat rei al llit de l’hospital, morint tres dies més tard. Després de la mort de l’efímer rei, el seu oncle Gyanendra va accedir al tron ​​el 4 de juny de 2001. La versió comunament acceptada pel poble del Nepal és ben diferent: l’assassinat en ple del nucli de la família reial hauria estat planejat pel que després seria el rei i portat a terme pel seu fill.

Porcions significatives del Nepal estan sent guanyades per la rebel·lió. Els maoistes expulsen els representants dels partits propers del poder, expropien els capitalistes locals i implementen els seus propis projectes de desenvolupament. També administren les seves presons i tribunals. A més de les mesures coercitives, la guerrilla està reforçant la seva presència a causa de la seva popularitat entre importants sectors de la societat nepalesa, en particular les dones, els intocables i les minories ètniques. Així, s’elimina la discriminació de casta, les dones reben els mateixos drets d’herència que els homes i se’n prohibeixen els matrimonis forçats. A més, els maoistes dispensen gratuïtament cures de salut i fan cursos d’alfabetització.