Austria is the Latinized identify of Austria. It initially solely referred to immediately’s Decrease Austria, later all the Habsburg monarchy and, within the Spanish kind Casa de Austria, its ruling dynasty. It serves as a translation for “Austria” in numerous languages ​​and can be used as a model time period to create a reference to Austria.
The allegory of Austria, a logo of the Austrian state, is represented as a feminine determine with a mural crown in her hair and a spear in her hand, leaning on a coat of arms.

phrase origin and historical past

The identify Austria is mentioned for the primary time in a doc written in Latin by King Konrad III. dated February 25, 1147, which is stored immediately within the Klosterneuburg monastery of the Augustinian canons. It speaks of products that got away by the Austrie marchionibus, the Margraves of Austria (Marchiones Austriae).[1]
Nonetheless, the identify doesn’t return to the Latin, however to the proto-Germanic language. The Previous Excessive German *austar- means one thing like “to the east” or “within the east”, and the Previous Icelandic Edda calls the legendary dwarf of the east Austri. Intently associated to the phrase Austria are the names Austrasia and Austrien for the dominion of East Francia and the East. The basis ôstar- can be recognizable within the older identify Ostarrîchi. In Icelandic, Austria continues to be known as Austurríki (pronounced with an preliminary “Ö”, [ˈøistʏrˈriːcɪ]).[2] The resemblance to the Latin oyster for “south wind” and terra australis for the “southern nation” of Australia is coincidental.
For the reason that Center Ages, the archduchy of Austria has been often known as Austria and the (arch) duke of Austria as (archi-) dux Austriae. For the reason that fifteenth century, the time period domus Austriae, first documented in 1326, has been used for all the Home of Austria, however its Spanish translation Casa de Austria within the narrower sense just for the Spanish line of the Habsburgs. Austria has been often known as the nationwide allegory of Austria within the visible arts because the 18th century.

Carrying the identify of the republic in firm names

The usage of the phrase Austria in firm names (firm) or different establishments is barely permitted with federal approval. Part 16 Z2 of the German Business Code states “The corporate should not comprise any info that’s more likely to mislead about enterprise relationships which are important for the audience.” This precept was utilized in relation to the identify suffixes Austria, austro – but additionally Austria, Austrian and the names of different regional authorities, comparable to Styrian, Vienna – interpreted in such a manner that they “[are] solely permissible if it’s a firm of above-average significance or merchandise of usually Austrian character or of considerably larger high quality are manufactured.” The identical applies to golf equipment and different associations.

Difficult Situations

We’re all dealing with troublesome conditions with this Covid virus. Family members misplaced, isolation and loneliness, the worry and nervousness felt my so many. To not point out the troubles of the front-line employees, carers, nurses and all the opposite folks placing their lives in danger for the good thing about others.
The fear of misplaced jobs and enterprise closures will be all-consuming for households dealing with hardship and the uncertainty of the approaching months. The federal government have made some provisions with their supporting monetary preparations but it surely is not going to be enough to assist all employees.
The damaged relationships spurred on by the excessive stress ranges, cash worries, companies collapsing, or the lack of the breadwinner by demise, as moreover focusing on the aged and the Black and Asian communities, males appear extra affected than ladies.
The wedding steerage counsellors have been inundated with calls additionally the kid help-line. The quantity of violence inside houses has escalated past comprehension.
How can society be helped to repair itself? Individuals are suicidal, hurting, frightened not realizing the place to show for assist. The uncertainty is compounded by the very fact there is no such thing as a certainty there is not going to be additional spikes of the devastating virus. Some international locations have eradicated the virus and it has struck once more.
In amongst all this desperation extra Black males in America have been killed by police. This injustice has struck a chord with societies all around the world leading to large rallies in main cities in lots of international locations,inflicting folks to defy lockdown guidelines and social distancing. What is going to this do to the unfold of the virus it will likely be every week or two earlier than we discover out?
We should hold sturdy and endure shielding and social distancing for a bit of longer and discover peace in nature on our day by day walks. I’m fortunate I’ve a backyard I’m not caught in a high-rise flat with a number of kids.
What have I performed to support myself by means of these troublesome occasions? I discovered an internet program from WHO AM I, it breaks down the steps to turning into resilient and pleased over 10 weeks. It has helped me see the larger image, to get up, to recollect who I’m.
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Metabolism (from the Greek metabolisms, μεταβολισμός, which implies “change”, alternate) is the set of transformations that chemical substances bear inside residing organisms. The time period mobile metabolism is used to consult with the set of all chemical reactions that happen in cells. These reactions are chargeable for the processes of synthesis and degradation of vitamins within the cell and represent the idea of life, permitting the expansion and copy of cells, sustaining their constructions and adapting responses to their environments.
  The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, that are sequences of reactions through which the product of 1 response is used as a reactant within the subsequent response. Totally different enzymes catalyze totally different steps of metabolic pathways, performing in live performance in order to not interrupt the movement in these pathways. Enzymes are important to metabolism as a result of they permit fascinating however thermodynamically unfavorable reactions to be carried out by coupling them to extra favorable reactions. Enzymes regulate metabolic pathways in response to modifications within the mobile setting or alerts from different cells.
  Metabolism is often divided into two teams: anabolism and catabolism. Anabolic reactions, or synthesis reactions, are chemical reactions that produce new natural matter in residing issues. New compounds (extra complicated molecules) are synthesized from easy molecules (with power consumption within the type of ATP). Catabolic reactions, or decomposition/degradation reactions, are chemical reactions that produce giant quantities of power (ATP) from the decomposition or degradation of extra complicated molecules (natural matter). When catabolism exceeds anabolism in exercise, the physique loses mass, which occurs in intervals of fasting or sickness; but when anabolism overcomes catabolism, the organism grows or features mass. If each processes are in steadiness, the organism is in dynamic equilibrium or homeostasis. Metabolism is essentially studied by Biochemistry, typically additionally utilizing methods linked to Molecular Biology and Genetics.

Nepal Història

Història antiga

El Nepal té una llarga història que s’ha estès durant mil·lennis. Els kirati són un dels primers grups nepalesos coneguts, aproximadament el 563 a. C. i l’emperador Aśoka va governar sobre un vast imperi que incloïa el nord de l’Índia i el sud de la regió de Terai de l’actual Nepal al s. i a. C. Per a l’any 200, l’imperi budista va ser desplaçat per feus hindús resurgents, tais com la Dinastia Licchavi.

Al voltant de l’any 900, la dinastia Thakuri va succeir a l’era Licchavi i va ser finalment succeïda per la Dinastia Malla, que va governar fins al segle xviii. El 1768, el rei de Gorkha Prithvi Narayan Shah, va capturar la ciutat de Katmandú, convertint-la a la capital del seu nou regne.2 En 1814 Nepal es va veure involucrat en una guerra amb el Regne Unit (representat per la Companyia Britànica de les Índies) Orientals) en un conflicte conegut com a guerra anglo-nepalesa, que va acabar amb el tractat de Sugauli (1816), en la qual el Nepal va cedir el Sikkim i el sud de Terai, a canvi de la retirada britànica. Després que els gurkhas nepalesos ajudessin els anglesos a aixafar el motí dels Cipayos el 1857, la major part dels territoris de Terai els van ser tornats en senyal de gratitud.

Democràcia i guerra civil

La reina Rani del Nepal envoltada de les seves dames de companyia, a la dècada de 1920.
La Dinastia Shah va ser suspesa el 1846, quan Jung Bahadur Rana va prendre el control del país després d’assassinar diversos centenars de prínceps i caps a la massacre del Kot (palau d’arsenal) de Katmandú. Els Rana (gairebé tots Maharajás de Lambjang i Kaski)9 van governar com a primers ministres hereditaris fins a 1948, quan la colònia britànica va aconseguir la seva independència. L’Índia va proposar al rei Tribhuvan com a nou governant del Nepal el 1951 i va patrocinar el Partit del Congrés Nepalès. El fill de Tribhuvan, el rei Mahendra, va dissoldre l’experiment democràtic i va declarar un «sistema panchayat» (dictadura sense partits polítics) amb què governaria el regne. El seu fill, el rei Birendra el va succeir al tron ​​el 1972 i va continuar amb la política panchayat fins que la Jana Andolan (Moviment Popular o Moviment Democràtic) del 1989 va forçar la monarquia a acceptar les reformes constitucionals.

Al maig de 1991, Nepal va tenir les seves primeres eleccions en gairebé 50 anys. El Partit del Congrés Nepalès i el Partit Comunista del Nepal (Marxista-Leninista Unificat) van rebre la major quantitat de vots. Tot i això, cap dels dos partits va poder mantenir el poder per més de dos anys consecutius. Els crítics argumenten que les reformes governamentals no milloraven l’ordre polític de manera apreciable, ja que el nou govern també estava caracteritzat per l’extrema corrupció vorejant la cleptocràcia. El febrer de 1996, el Partit Comunista del Nepal va iniciar una insurrecció armada per reemplaçar el règim per un estat comunista de tendència maoista. Aquest conflicte es prolongaria durant 10 anys, al llarg dels quals moririen més de 12.700 persones. Segons l’Informal Sector Service Centre, les forces governamentals són responsables del 85 % dels morts de civils.

Segons el relat d’alguns funcionaris governamentals del Nepal, l’1 de juny de 2001, el príncep hereu Dipendra, en tornar al seu palau després d’una sortida nocturna, va assassinar els seus pares, el rei Birendra i la reina Aishwarya, així com altres diversos membres de la família reial, producte d’una querella familiar. Tot i intentar suïcidar-se, Dipendra es va mantenir amb vida, i encara que va caure en estat de coma, va ser proclamat rei al llit de l’hospital, morint tres dies més tard. Després de la mort de l’efímer rei, el seu oncle Gyanendra va accedir al tron ​​el 4 de juny de 2001. La versió comunament acceptada pel poble del Nepal és ben diferent: l’assassinat en ple del nucli de la família reial hauria estat planejat pel que després seria el rei i portat a terme pel seu fill.

Porcions significatives del Nepal estan sent guanyades per la rebel·lió. Els maoistes expulsen els representants dels partits propers del poder, expropien els capitalistes locals i implementen els seus propis projectes de desenvolupament. També administren les seves presons i tribunals. A més de les mesures coercitives, la guerrilla està reforçant la seva presència a causa de la seva popularitat entre importants sectors de la societat nepalesa, en particular les dones, els intocables i les minories ètniques. Així, s’elimina la discriminació de casta, les dones reben els mateixos drets d’herència que els homes i se’n prohibeixen els matrimonis forçats. A més, els maoistes dispensen gratuïtament cures de salut i fan cursos d’alfabetització.

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